李志民Science刊文:教育强国与人才强国(中英对照)

2019-11-20 李志民

人才工作关系到国家的发展和社会的进步。在新时代的背景下,我们高校要加强原创科技引领,提高人才培养质量,服务国家重大战略,培养汇聚领军人才,把高校建成科技创新重要策源地、科技强国和教育强国的战略支撑力量。

  尽管世界各国贸易纠纷不断,但经济全球化进程仍然加快,因而世界各国纷纷扩张人才资源规模,人才市场的国际化在所难免。中国政府立足于人才培养自给为主,为了培养一流的人才,中国于前年启动世界一流大学和一流学科建设。一流大学建设离不开一流学科,而一流学科离不开一流教授,在发挥好现有教授的作用和提高他们的水平外,很多大学校长将招募一流教授的目光锁定在国际人才市场上,从海外吸引优秀人才参与高校"双一流"建设。

  吸引海外人才是世界上大多数国家壮大本国人才队伍的通行做法,也是在较短时间内提升本国科学技术水平的一条捷径。在吸引海外人才方面,美国积累了很多经验,移民制度在吸引高水平人才方面起着重要作用,已成为最大的赢家。中国也可以通过制度建设,在吸引早年的留学人才回来的同时,注重吸引更多国际优秀人才来中国。高校要不断吸纳海外的优秀学者携世界一流大学的文化和一流学科的素养加入进来实现国内高校学科建设,加快"双一流"建设。

  留学并工作在海外的人才具有国际化的视野、工作和生活经验,具有很好的发展潜力,要寻找最适合自己发展的环境。中国经济快速发展,目前国内一线城市的硬件和软件都接近发达国家,创新创业的环境逐步完善。更重要的是,国内高端人才的待遇以及海外学者看重的实验设备和科研平台正慢慢赶上甚至超过国外,加上中华文化和亲情,这些都是在海外工作难以兼得的。

  中国各项事业蓬勃发展,为各方面优秀人才提供了前所未有的发展空间,大批海外高层次人才回国寻求大发展也将成为新的趋势。中国的发展已经进入了从要素驱动、投资驱动向创新驱动的转型新阶段。创新驱动实质上就是人才驱动,对人才工作提出了更新更高的要求。高校要改善国内人才成长的环境至关重要,吸引人才最好的办法是充分发挥现有人才的作用,要创造更好的条件让本校已有人才脱颖而出,就是最好的吸引力。当前国内已经有大量学成回国的人才,如果优秀人才回国之后出不了什么成果,国外的人就会认为环境可能有问题。所以,如何栽下梧桐树,搭建凤凰巢,创造出能够留住这些英才并且最大程度的发挥其学术水平和能力的良好环境,是非常重要的课题。

  人才工作关系到国家的发展和社会的进步。在新时代的背景下,我们高校要加强原创科技引领,提高人才培养质量,服务国家重大战略,培养汇聚领军人才,把高校建成科技创新重要策源地、科技强国和教育强国的战略支撑力量。

Strengthening China Through Education and Talent Cultivation

Despite continual worldwide trade disputes, the pace of globalization is still increasing. At present, all countries are eager to expand their talent pool, and they realize it is imperative to develop their international talent market. China conducts its own talent cultivation, and for that purpose launched the "Double First-Class" initiative in 2017, in order to build world-class universities and first-class disciplines. The formation of world-class universities is inseparable from that of first-class disciplines, and first-class disciplines cannot be created without first-class professors. In addition to fully supporting current professors and improving their disciplines, many university presidents now pay increasing attention to the international talent market. They are trying to attract outstanding overseas talent to participate in the construction of Double First-Class universities in China.

In fact, it is common for many countries to introduce overseas talent to expand their domestic talent reserve-this is also a shortcut for bolstering a country's level of scientific advancement in a short time. The biggest winner in this process is the United States, with its immigration system playing a big part in attracting a wealth of overseas talent. China is now also implementing new mechanisms to attract Chinese students living overseas, and of course international talent as well. Chinese universities are hoping to pull in overseas scholars and experts from the world's top universities and disciplines to accelerate the progress of the Double First-Class initiative.

Those who study or work abroad gain rich and varied work and life experiences. They often have great ambitions and seek the environments that best suit their goals-China can now provide such environments. Its economy is thriving, and some of its big cities now have scientific facilities and workplaces comparable to those of developed countries. The climate for innovation and entrepreneurship continues to improve in China. More importantly, high-level international researchers are warmly welcomed, and the quality of experimental equipment and research platforms that overseas scholars value most has in many cases caught up to and even surpassed what is found in some foreign countries.

The vigorous development of science, technology, and business in China now provides an unprecedented space for growth for talents in all fields. This situation will create a new trend that will result in large numbers of high-level experts living overseas coming back home. China has entered a new stage of transformation in its economic development, in which it is changing from a factor-driven (based on unskilled labor or natural resources and producing mostly basic products), investment-driven economy to an innovation-driven economy. However, the innovation-driven strategy calls for an increased focus on talents, and imposes more stringent requirements on their work. It is vital for China's universities to improve the domestic environment for talent advancement. The best way to attract talent is to give full play to the role of existing talents, and by cultivating them, to produce higher-quality work that will draw even more talent from overseas. At present, many outstanding talents have already returned to China-however, we could make improvements domestically that create conditions more conducive to effective career advancement. Therefore, it is crucial to offer environments that can retain talents and maximize their academic capacity.

The level of work done by experts is closely related to the level of a country's development. China's universities will strengthen the advancement of original science and technology, nurture leading talents, and help to pilot our country in its great voyage toward a new era. And we will strive to build our universities into major strategic centers for innovation, so that they will stand as a guarantee of China's future prosperity through the power of education and talent cultivation.

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