聚焦“2020年科学突破”:2020中国高校科研突破性成果推荐

2020-12-30

2020年,中国政府倡导的创新驱动发展战略深入实施,通过持续推进“放管服”改革,加快破除不合理的管理规定和制度,国家科技计划管理、自然科学基金、成果转化、资源共享、国家奖励、收入分配等改革取得实质进展,科技创新环境得到优化,重...


2020中国高校科研突破性成果推荐

  Recommendations for Scientific Breakthroughs of Chinese Universities in 2020

  作者:中国科技评估与成果管理研究会学术委员会主任李志民

  By Zhimin, Li

  Director of Academic Committee, Institute of China Science and Technology Evaluation and Achievement Management

  2020年,中国政府倡导的创新驱动发展战略深入实施,通过持续推进“放管服”改革,加快破除不合理的管理规定和制度,国家科技计划管理、自然科学基金、成果转化、资源共享、国家奖励、收入分配等改革取得实质进展,科技创新环境得到优化,重大科技成果不断涌现。

  In 2020, as the deep implementation of the Innovation-driven Development Strategy advocated by the Chinese Government, by continuously promoting the "Fang Guan Fu" reform (reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services) and speeding up the elimination of unreasonable management regulations and systems, substantial progress has been made in reforms such as the management of national science and technology programs, natural science funds, achievement transformation, resource sharing, national awards, and income distribution; the environment for scientific and technological innovation has been optimized; and major scientific and technological achievements have constantly sprung up.

  国家持续加大科技研发投入,明显提高基础研究经费占研发经费比重以提高科研整体水平,着力改革科技评价以激发更大的创新创造活力。在用好财政资金的同时,鼓励企业和社会力量多渠道持续增加投入。有投入就要有产出,而且还要评估效益如何。科研投入和产出与工业生产不同,重大成果的取得往往是长期积累的结果,所以国家鼓励科研人员甘坐冷板凳,自由探索、厚积薄发,努力有更多科学发现和发明创造。2020年高等院校值得推荐大家关注的科研突破性进展成果如下:

  China continues to expand investment in scientific and technological research and development, significantly increases the proportion of basic research grants in research and development expenditures to improve the overall level of scientific research, and focus on reforming scientific and technological evaluation to stimulate greater innovation and creativity. While making good use of financial funds, enterprises and social forces are encouraged to continuously expand investment from multiple channels. Output will come with input and the benefits must be evaluated. Unlike industrial production, scientific research input always results in major achievements coming from long-term accumulation. Therefore, the state encourages researchers to be very patient, make free exploration, accumulate and make more scientific discoveries and inventions. In 2020, the breakthrough achievements of scientific research in universities worth recommending to everyone are as follows:

  一、清华大学薛其坤团队和复旦大学的科学家发现一种内禀的磁性拓扑绝缘体MnBi2Te4,并观测到了量子反常霍尔效应,所需温度远高于磁性掺杂拓扑绝缘体。MnBi2Te4既具有固有的磁有序也具有固有的拓扑非平庸电子结构,其包含的高浓度且排列有序的磁性原子使其薄膜可以具有稳定的量子反常霍尔态。这种材料在不同磁构型和维度可以显示多种有趣的拓扑相,如外尔半金属、轴子绝缘体、不同陈数的陈绝缘体。这些特性使MnBi2Te4成为研究这些拓扑相的一个理想平台,以及一个探索高温量子反常霍尔系统的一个很好的出发点。

  I.Xue Qikun’s group from Tsinghua University and the scientists of Fudan University discovered an intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4 and observed the quantum anomalous Hall effect. The required temperature is much higher than that in magnetically doped topological insulators. MnBi2Te4 has both inherent magnetic order and topologically non-trivial electronic structure. Its concentrated and orderly arranged magnetic atoms contribute to a robust quantum anomalous Hall state in its thin film. Various interesting topological phases, such as Weyl semimetal, axion insulator and Chern insulators with tunable Chern numbers, can be found in the material with different magnetic configurations and dimensions. The unique properties make the material an ideal platform to study these topological phases and a good starting point to explore high temperature quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  二、北京大学程和平团队研究开发建立南京脑观测台(BNO),提供了高通量脑活动成像的能力。最近,NBO配备了十多个不同类型的 mTPM装置,以及超灵敏结构照明显微镜和具有同步飞行扫描读出(VISO R)的体积成像。通过与脑皮层工作记忆、睡眠、自闭症、抑郁症、神经药理学和神经元再生方面的专家合作,已经开展了这类早期项目研究。BNO的建立能够使科学家自由探索许多生物行为范式,包括身体运动、长期和复杂动作协同、甚至慢性疾病的进展、衰老过程等,为破译大脑的工作原理提供了实验工具。

  II.Cheng Heping’s group from Peking University built up the Nanjing Brain Observatory (NBO) which provides the capability of imaging of brain activities at high throughput. Recently, the NBO has equipped with more than ten setups of mTPMs of different types, alongside ultrasensitive structured illumination microscope and Volumetric Imaging with Synchronized on-the-fly-scan and Readout (VISOR). The early-bird projects are ongoing through collaborations with experts in cortical working memory, sleep, autism, depression, neural pharmacology, and neuronal regeneration. The establishment of BNO has provided the experimental tools enabling scientists to freely explore many behavioral paradigms involving body movements, long and complex protocols, and even chronic disease progression and aging to decipher the working principles of the brain.

  三、清华大学尤政团队发明了系列基于MEMS 技术的空间姿态传感器新结构、新技术与实现方法,研制了MEMS 陀螺、磁强计、继电器、推进器及纳/皮型星敏感器,首次实现了系列国产化MEMS器件的在轨应用,同时突破了MEMS卫星设计制造、空间微型化功能器件研制及一体化高性能应用等核心技术,形成了MEMS卫星及其相关新技术、新方法、新产品和新应用。

  III.You Zheng’s group from Tsinghua University invented a series of new structures, new technologies and implementation methods of spatial attitude sensors based on MEMS technology, and developed MEMS gyroscopes, magnetometers, relays, thrusters and nano/pico-star sensors, which realized the in-orbit application of serialized domestic MEMS devices for the first time, and at the same time made breakthroughs in the core technologies of MEMS satellite design and manufacturing, research and development of spatial micro-functional device and integrated high-performance applications, forming new technologies, new methods, new products and new applications of MEMS satellites.

  四、北京大学肖瑞平团队长期关注一种在横纹肌中高表达的E3泛素化连接酶MG53在心血管代谢疾病中的作用。最近,他们发现缺血预适应诱导的氧化应激刺激心肌细胞分泌MG53,而心肌细胞分泌的内源MG53或者外源给予重组MG53蛋白,都可以保护心脏抵抗缺血再灌注损伤。同时,肖教授团队发现MG53的功能还有不利的一面,即在高糖刺激下MG53作为AMPK的E3连接酶介导了其泛素化依赖性的降解。肖教授团队围绕MG53的一系列研究结果表明MG53在治疗缺血性心肌病中具有治疗作用,但它也可能导致代谢紊乱。

  IV.The group of Dr. Rui-Ping Xiao from Peking University has long focused on the role of a striated muscle-enriched E3 ubiquitin ligase, MG53, in cardiometabolic diseases. Recently, they found that Oxidative stress induced by ischemic preconditioning triggers MG53 secretion from cardiomyocytes. The MG53, either endogenous protein secreted from cardiomyocytes or exogenous recombinant protein applied, can protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. On the other hand, they identified another adverse side of MG53 that acts as an E3 ligase of AMPK and mediates its ubiquitination-dependent degradation in response to high glucose. This work series on MG53 of Professor Xiao’s group demonstrated that MG53 has therapeutic potential in treating ischemic heart diseases, while it may also disturb metabolic homeostasis.

  五、北京大学和华南理工大学的蒋尚达和高松团队利用铈(III)离子掺杂的钇铝石榴石单晶的进行了一项有电场参与的脉冲电子顺磁共振研究。通过向晶体施加不同持续时间和强度的电场操作脉冲,铈离子的量子相位可以被定量地操控。并进一步利用这一电场效应演示了量子启停器,量子芝诺效应和Deutsch-Jozsa算法。该工作表明了电场可以作为一种实用手段,对电子自旋进行的量子信息意义上的操纵,展示了在固态自旋电子学器件中利用磁电耦合量子特性的光明前景。

  V.S.-D. Jiang and S. Gao et al from Peking University and South China University of Technology have performed a pulsed EPR study incorporated with the electric field on a Ce3+ doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) crystal. By applying the electric field pulse with variable lengths and strengths to the crystal, the quantum phase of the Ce ion could be quantitatively manipulated. The bang-bang control, the quantum Zeno effect and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm are further demonstrated based on this electric field effect. The work has shown the practical feasibility of the electric field as a means of quantum information processing with the electron spin, shedding light on the tantalizing perspective of utilizing the quantum nature of spin-electric coupling in a solid-state spintronic device. 

  六、郑州大学刘炯天团队以体系中表界面微纳力学调控为抓手,系统研究了低品质煤颗粒与捕收剂分子及气泡间的界面相互作用机制。联合多尺度微纳力学表征与分子动力学模拟,发现低品质煤颗粒与烃油分子及气泡间始终存在微观斥力作用。发明了浮选捕收剂分子定向筛选设计方法,研发出了与低品质煤表面官能团相适配的极性复合捕收剂实现其表面亲水位点的选择性钝化,体系表界面引力显著增强。 

  VI.Liu Jiongtian’s group from Zhengzhou University studied the interaction mechanism between low-quality coal particle and collector molecule/air bubble systematically, especially focus on micro-nano forces existed in the system. Combing multi-scale mechanical characterization with molecular dynamics simulation, a micro repulsive force was always identified between low-quality coal and both hydrocarbon oil molecular and air bubble. They invented the design method that the floatation collector molecule are directive screened and a polar composite collector compatible with the surface functional groups of low-quality coal to achieve selective passivation of hydrophilic sites on the surface, significantly making surface and interfacial forces attractive.

  七、北京邮电大学乔建永团队首次发现了它与复动力系统中Leau-Fatou花瓣定理逆问题的联系,揭示了 Kastner方程的动力学机理。这一结果表明,可以通过花瓣点的存在性来判断隧道弹塑性形变曲线连续演化的奇点,为隧道动力学研究开辟了一条全新的途径。上述结果给出深部地下隧道围岩稳定性预警:隧道横截面岩土的蝶型塑性区边界曲线为安全临界曲线。

  VII.Qiao Jianyong’s group from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications found out a relationship between the Kastner equation and the converse problem of Leau-Fatou petal theorem in the theory of complex dynamical system firstly, and discovered the dynamical mechanism of Kastner. This result shows that the singularity of the continuous evolution of the tunnel elastoplastic deformation curve can be judged by the existence of petal points, which opens up a new way for tunnel dynamics research. The above results give an early warning of the stability of the surrounding rock of a deep underground tunnel: the boundary curve of the butterfly-shaped plastic zone of the rock and soil of the tunnel cross section is the safety critical curve.

  八、中国地质大学(武汉)王焰新团队(2020)基于20多年的跨学科基础研究和国内外对比,提出了劣质地下水成因新的理论体系,系统总结出劣质地下水4种成因模式(淋滤-汇聚型、埋藏-溶解型、压密-释放型、蒸发-浓缩型),揭示地下水系统演化对劣质组分富集的控制机理。在全球气候变化和日趋强烈的人类活动影响的大背景下,需加强地下水系统在人类世演化的精细监测、模拟和预测研究,以保障地下水资源的可持续安全供给,维系地下水型生态系统的健康。

  VIII. Wang Yanxin’s group from China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (2020) proposed a new theoretical framework of the genesis of geogenic contaminated groundwaters (GCGs) to unravel how the hydrogeological evolution of groundwater systems creates conditions favorable for the enrichment of harmful elements in groundwater, based on their interdisciplinary fundamental study inside and outside China for more than twenty years. Four basic genetic types of GCGs were summarized, including leaching-enrichment type, burial-dissolution type, compaction-release type, and evaporation-concentration type. Considering the impact of global climate change and increasingly strong anthropogenic processes, they further appeal that the evolution of groundwater systems in the Anthropocene Epoch needs to be carefully monitored, modeled and predicted to ensure the sustainable safe supply of groundwater resources and the well-being of the groundwater-dependent ecosystems.

  九、清华大学李庆斌团队针对疲劳、徐变、温度等复杂历时荷载的破坏判别,传统的最大应力准则、最大应变准则、最大剪应力准则和能量准则均不适用的难题,建立了基于应力与变形的材料破坏理论,考虑了变形这个关键指标对强度的影响,并得到了试验验证,实现了材料全生命周期性能发展预测与失效判别。将该准则与实时快速仿真计算拱坝混凝土的温度场和应力场相结合,解决了大坝混凝土施工期开裂的技术难题。

  IX.Li Qingbin’s group from Tsinghua University aimed at the failure judgments of fatigue, creep, temperature and other complex load durations. They established a material failure theory based on stress and strain for the difficult problems that the traditional maximum stress criterion, maximum strain criterion, maximum shear stress criterion and energy criterion are not applicable. They considered the influence of deformation, a key index, on strength, which has been verified by experiments, realized the prediction of the material’s life cycle performance development and failure identification, and combined the criterion with real-time rapid simulation calculation of the temperature field and stress field of the arch dam concrete to solve the technical problem of cracking in the construction period of dam concrete.

  十、同济大学朱合华团队创新性地研发了岩体隧道远程诊断分析技术,有机集成了隧道开挖面信息采集、传输、建模、分析和支护设计等系统,攻克了隧道开挖面信息实时获取、快速围岩分级、动态支护设计和快速反馈的关键难题。首次实现了岩体隧道工程施工现场与实验室的数字化融合。

  X.Professor Zhu Hehua’s group from Tongji University originally developed a remote diagnosis and analysis platform for rock tunnels, which integrates effectively different systems of information acquisition and transmission, modeling, analysis, and fast design of supports for tunnel excavation. They resolved some key technical issues including the real-time acquisition of excavation face information, rapid classification of surrounding rocks, dynamic design for supports and rapid feedback. For the first time they enabled the digital fusion between the construction site of rock tunnels to laboratory. 

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